Reassessing Industrial Zones In Norwalk
Norwalk is embarking on a study to review the city’s industrial zones, their current uses, and the city’s future needs. Since its beginnings, Norwalk has transformed from an important colonial seaport, to a major manufacturing center, and today is a city with both a diverse population and economy, from Fortune 500 companies, to high-tech manufacturing, and innovative start-up companies. By revisiting its industrial zoning, Norwalk hopes to use its remaining industrial parcels as key resources for creating job growth, and to further diversify its economy.
What is an Industrial Zone?
Industrial zones are important components of city planning. An industrial zone is an area of a municipality that is designated to be used for industrial uses. These zones can benefit a city by boosting economic development, providing employment and investment in the area, and generating city revenues.
For industrial zones to be beneficial, a city should have space for manufacturing that is suitable and affordable. This can be challenging in places where land values are high and there is significant demand for space for other uses such as residential or office buildings. Industrial zones also need to be located in areas that are accessible to transportation links, allowing employees to come and go and goods to be shipped. Having zones where manufacturing is clustered allows these businesses to operate freely without worrying about disturbing neighboring businesses or residents.
Some schools of thought argue that having a diversity of industry near one another promotes both more industrial economic growth as well as development of the city’s surrounding area. The theory is that diversity provides opportunities for technological inter-fertilization of industries as well as innovation and entrepreneurship.
Industrial Zones in Norwalk
According to Norwalk’s Zoning Regulations, the “primary purpose of industrial zones is to provide areas which permit manufacturing and related uses”. Heavy industrial uses are allowed by special permit. Examples of businesses in this area are any manufacturing that doesn’t involve noxious waste or overly loud noises. They can also include warehouses, package distribution facilities and places that sell or store building materials.
The city also recognizes that while there’s a need for manufacturing space it needs to ensure that industrial zones are compatible with nearby residential neighborhoods and with the capacity of available infrastructure. Therefore, city regulations state that any plans for building a structure more than 20,000 square feet or with more than 50 parking spaces must include special permits.
In keeping with the coexistence of residents and businesses, industrial zones in Norwalk can also include retail stores, offices, including medical offices, banks and financial institutions, other service establishments such as restaurants and taverns, as well as single- and two-family housing.
Examining Norwalk’s Industrial Zones
Norwalk’s study of its industrial zones will help it to make decisions about the city when planning for development. A goal of the study is to determine what Norwalk can do to foster industrial growth, including craft industries, and ensure that thriving businesses expand and/or remain in Norwalk. Among the key issues the study will look at is if all the areas that are zoned industrial currently are still appropriate for the neighborhoods. The study will also examine what other similar communities in the Northeast are doing to attract commercial and manufacturing companies, including new tech and green manufacturing. Conversely, the study will evaluate what might discourage industrial growth in Norwalk, including limitations or issues with regard to infrastructure (e.g. roadways, sanitation, energy, etc.).
For industrial development to thrive, governments and private developers need to create sustainable, profitable conditions. Designated industrial zones with the infrastructure (both physical as well as technical), convenient location, and municipal and residential support can deliver jobs and economic growth. Norwalk’s reassessment of its industrial zones is a step in that direction.
The Importance of Anchor Institutions to a City
There is a lot of talk in city planning circles these days about anchor institutions in cities and towns. With the loss of manufacturing in smaller cities and towns, institutions like hospitals and universities have become more important factors in local economies, and partners to neighborhoods and municipalities. In fact, those two institutions alone employ eight percent of the U.S. labor force and account for more than seven percent of U.S. gross domestic product. Below we delve a little deeper into anchor institutions and how they can benefit their communities.
What Are Anchor Institutions?
Anchor institutions are organizations that are established in communities and tied to them via place. Examples are libraries, hospitals, local community foundations, colleges and universities, and cultural organizations such as museums or arts centers. Anchor institutions can also be major employers in certain niches like science and design. Because of their longstanding establishment in a town or city, these places have an interest and investment in keeping their community vibrant. They contribute to their community via their employees, businesses they use as vendors, and relationships with neighbors and other organizations in the area. Because of their ties to their neighborhoods, towns, and regions, they are seen as key to its economic development, wellbeing, and cultural growth. The thinking is that they can be even more beneficial to their towns and cities via their intellectual resources, and economic and cultural power.
As some of the largest regional employers in a city, anchor institutions can benefit a city or town through its hiring and workforce development programs. Hiring local residents at decent, living wages and offering career building opportunities for local residents and employees can keep the area’s economy healthy. Working with and hiring locally-owned vendors promotes small and local businesses.
Other ways anchor institutions can promote business development in the area include colleges and universities making use of their resources, such as faculty and students. By creating small business development centers to work in their regions they can help to build the capacity of local
businesses. Area foundations and nonprofits too can create programs to work with local individuals and businesses to build their professional capacity. Colleges for example can also work with local school districts to create viable pipelines and pathways to skilled, high-paying jobs.
Promoting A Healthy Community
Institutions can do a number of things to impact the health of their neighborhoods and regions. They can work directly with the community via public health interventions. They can also make investments in factors that affect good health such as access to health care and health care information, access to healthy food and physical activity in local public schools, workforce wellness initiatives with local businesses, investment in safe and affordable housing, and by providing employment to local residents.
Anchor institutions need to engage with their local communities to maintain a partnership relationship. Universities can foster civic participation via discussions, lectures, workshops around adult education, politics, and the economy. Art institutions can support building a thriving arts and culture hub by supporting local artists and businesses, and partnering with local schools.
Anchor Institutions can bring important benefits to local communities in which they are located by creating decent-paying jobs for residents, supporting local businesses and community-based entrepreneurship, promoting the arts, culture and health, and engaging residents in a variety of productive ways.
In Norwalk, we have a number of anchor institutions, including Norwalk Hospital, Norwalk Community College and The Maritime Aquarium, for example. Anchor institutions are central to the implementation of the current Wall Street-West Avenue Redevelopment Plan. Because there are only a few traditional institutions in the area – Norwalk Hospital, Norwalk Public Library, Stepping Stones – non-traditional anchor institutions such as major employers like King Industries and Devine Brothers are also involved. These community strongholds continue to contribute to making Norwalk and surrounding towns a dynamic place to live and work.
You may have seen them in your city or town, brightly colored crosswalks, perhaps with an artistic design. If they’ve caught your eye, well… that’s the point! Artistic crosswalks are a playful, cost-efficient, and low-maintenance tool to highlight marked pedestrian crossings. They attract attention, while creating a sense of community.
What Are Artistic Crosswalks?
Artistic crosswalks are exactly as the term implies, crosswalks that are not your run-of-the-mill white lines, but include color, patterns, and even textures. They can be designed to reflect the special character of a neighborhood, mark the gateway to a district, or create local identity and pride.
Pros and Cons of Artistic Crosswalks
In addition to promoting art and being fun, these crosswalks raise awareness of pedestrian safety. They are more noticeable to pedestrians and drivers, often having the side effect of slowing down traffic in the area. Some proponents also say artistic crosswalks offer public health benefits making roads more pedestrian-friendly. By creating more welcoming spaces, they encourage people to get out and walk or bike.
Critics offer caution, however, saying that the artwork can be distracting or confusing to motorists. In fact, federal guidelines for crosswalks are very specific, with exact specifications for white line size and spacing, even the type of reflective paint to be used. Some cities have removed colorful crosswalks after the Federal Highway Administration deemed them distracting to drivers.
Norwalk, CT and Artistic Crosswalks
The City of Norwalk has a relatively new artistic crosswalk program developed by the Transportation, Mobility and Parking Department with stated guidelines. The city recently approved one at West Avenue and Connecticut Avenue in front of Mathews Park that will be painted in rainbow colors. The idea was proposed by the Triangle Community Center. The crosswalk not only represents the LGBTQ community but also Norwalk’s diversity and inclusivity as it is located across from Heritage Wall which celebrates Norwalk’s diversity, representing the gateway to Norwalk.
Norwalk’s Artistic Crosswalk program ties into the efforts of the Citywide Plan by creating neighborhood identity and placemaking as part of the investment into economic and community development. This installation was a true community collaboration, bringing together the City, The Triangle Community Center, the Norwalk Green Association, the Norwalk Bike Walk Commission, the Norwalk Historical Commission and the Norwalk Historical Society.
If you or your organization would like to propose one for Norwalk, Click Here for more information.
The Benefits of Mixed-Use Development
New development to update and renew buildings and parcels are a part of life in a city that wants to remain vital. In the last few decades, cities have put emphasis on encouraging mixed-use development, combining many types of uses in a space, from residential to cultural and commercial. But what exactly is mixed-use development and what are the benefits for a city and its residents?
At its core, mixed-use development is just that: urban development that includes a number of different uses. When developing a piece of land, cities no longer want a large parcel of just offices or a large apartment building.The goal is more pedestrian-friendly development that combines residential/multifamily, retail, office and restaurant components. The idea is that this kind of development produces synergies in the use of the land, creating more of a walkable community that not only is good for the economy but also for residents and employees, as well as a destination for visitors to the neighborhood.
How Mixed-Use Development Benefits Residents and Tenants
People who live in cities want to have amenities close by. In a mixed-use development, they’re able to walk from their apartments and go to a restaurant, cafe or retail store, right at the bottom of their building or next door. Being able to walk to the things they want to purchase or experience saves them the costs of having a car to go everywhere, and with fewer cars on the road, the environment benefits. Public spaces are also incorporated into these developments, encouraging people to get outside and interact with other residents - fostering a sense of community. Similarly for people that work in office buildings in a mixed-use space, there are convenient places to eat, shop and relax during their lunch hour or after work.
Benefits of Mixed-Use to Developers and Investors
For developers and investors, mixed-use development because there are a variety of uses and tenants to these developments, this provides investors with diversification with regards to risk. There is no single, large tenant whose vacancy could negatively impact them. Certainly, there are a number of concerns that must be worked through such as parking and density regulations, so it’s important for developers to work with city planners as well as neighborhood groups early, as well. But by integrating a number of types of products, investors and developers will create destinations that will attract tenants of many kinds.
Mixed Use Development In Norwalk
Here in Norwalk, CT, the Waypointe development on West Avenue is a great example of mixed-use development. Included with apartments are dining and shopping establishments right downstairs. The development also has attractive public space and is within walking distance of the cultural attractions such as the Wall Street Theater, the Norwalk Public Library, the Lockwood Mathews Mansion, and Stepping Stones Museums, as well as other restaurants.
For cities, mixed-use development, integrating corporate, retail, entertainment, restaurants and residential, can encourage private investment, support business, promote tourism and increase tax revenue given the increased density. But the ultimate benefit and goal for a city is to help transform neighborhoods into destinations that bring residents, tenants and visitors to an area to live, work, shop and play.
Transforming Retail in Norwalk
Norwalk has many types of retail spaces, from walkable city streets to strip malls and large big box stores. As Norwalk watches the new SoNo Collection
mall rise off West Avenue and Interstate 95, it’s clear that it will impact the retail environment in the city. It’s a good time to consider the changing face and of malls in the country and how Norwalk’s new mall will fit in that trend.
Developers of the SoNo Collection envision it as an upscale regional shopping center, housing 700,000+ square feet of retail, including anchor tenants Nordstrom and Bloomingdales, as well as 80-100 smaller retailers such as J. Jill, Sephora, and Chicos.
Despite the pending arrival of new shops in town, we increasingly hear about the boom in internet shopping affecting brick and mortar stores and malls. According to Coresight Research, 5,862 stores closed their doors in 2018, while only 3,239 new stores opened. As for malls, the forecast looks as grim. Credit Suisse estimates that 20% to 25% of malls are likely to close over the next five years due to store closures.
Because of this seemingly poor outlook, malls are faced with the need to change their offerings. The mall of the future may look very different from today. The trend is to make malls more like “city centers” with destination-type, experiential entertainment venues such as gyms, more food options and hotels, in addition to traditional retail.
The new Hudson Yards Mall
in New York City is an example of this new model. In addition to a wide variety of retail shops from high-end luxury such as Tiffany’s, to the more affordable, like H&M, Hudson Yards has many food options. You can find small craft coffee shops to restaurants run by celebrity chefs and everything in between. But what really distinguishes this mall, is the other multi-use options. There is 3DEN billed as a space to unwind where you can take a nap, meditate, even shower. Hudson Yards mall is right next to new hi-rise apartments as well as offices housing large companies like CNN and SAP. Equinox gym is opening up right next store, along with the first Equinox hotel.
Location of the SoNo Collection Mall
Back in Norwalk, we can see the start of this mixed-use model in the SoNo Collection. As of spring 2019, the new mall is set to include Yard House sports bar, as well as Pinstripes, a dining and entertainment venue. Pinstripes includes bowling, a bistro and bocce courts all in one.The SoNo Collection Pinstripes will allow shoppers to view the bowling alleys, and the restaurant will include outdoor patio seating and bocce courts overlooking the water. Plans also include large areas devoted to public spaces such as a sculpture garden, a rooftop garden, and possibly museum and education space.
There was a time when teenagers went to the mall and stayed for hours. Today, malls are working to encourage people to use the malls as destinations again - to come and stay, but not just for the shopping. The new SoNo Collection is following that trend.
What’s In The Wall Street-West Avenue Plan
The Wall Street and West Avenue neighborhoods have seen tremendous growth and change over the last decade. The area has many assets including historic structures, waterfront buildings, and a number of anchor institutions such as Norwalk Hospital, Norwalk Public Library, and the Wall Street Theater. A recently approved plan for the neighborhood (seen in the map below) by the City of Norwalk was conceived with help from area residents, businesses, and other stakeholders. The plan outlines a development path to the goal of a healthy and vibrant urban core neighborhood with a strong economy, driven by innovation and collaboration that is accessible, authentic, lively, and affordable for residents and businesses. Below is a summary of the plan and some of its recommendations.
Opportunity Sites for Redevelopment
Central to realizing the vision for the future of the Wall Street-West Avenue neighborhood, is for the Norwalk Redevelopment Agency and the City of Norwalk to focus attention and resources on specific opportunity sites that can serve as catalysts for broader community development.
These sites, identified by the Norwalk Redevelopment Agency, were chosen based on several factors including development potential, land area (50,000 square feet or more), and location on one of the neighborhood’s primary commercial corridors of West Avenue or Wall Street. The sites include
- 370 West Avenue (former YMCA site)
- West Avenue between Merwin and Chapel Streets
- Wall Street, West Avenue, Leonard & Commerce Street site
- Wall Street between High & Main Streets
- Library and adjacent sites
Below are some of the plan recommendations that will help to promote development in the Wall Street/West Avenue area:
The plan emphasizes the need for more flexible zoning regulations to reoccupy ground floor spaces and to create sensible growth within the Wall-West area. Zoning for the area is undergoing the approval process and is expected to be approved by May 2019.
Parks and Open Spaces
The plan emphasizes the expansion or addition of parks and open spaces. Just five percent of the neighborhood’s land area is dedicated as park/open space including Mathews Park, Union Park, Freese Park, the Norwalk River Valley Trail, and the Harbor Loop Trail. More open space can be achieved by encouraging, requiring, or incentivizing the creation of privately owned green, public spaces as part of new development projects as well as through the creation of parklets within public rights of way.
Waterfront improvements are envisioned in order to take advantage of one of the area’s most prominent assets. Over the past several years, there has been significant development on the northeastern side of Norwalk’s harbor as well as expansion of public access to the waterfront via the Harbor Loop Trail. On the east side of the river, the Norwalk River Esplanade extends north from I-95 to Head of Harbor, providing residents and visitors with a pedestrian and bicycle connection along the river’s edge. On the western side of the river, however, public waterfront access is limited. This waterfront area is largely an active industrial and commercial corridor and the railroad line that runs parallel to the river creates a physical barrier between these properties and the Wall Street-West Avenue neighborhood and there are there are no public waterfront access easements.
Enhancing transit connectivity between the Wall Street-West Avenue neighborhood, employment centers within the City of Norwalk, and the greater Norwalk region is essential to economic development of the Wall Street-West Avenue area. One of the area’s key assets is its urban character and walkability- which is attractive to neighborhood residents and businesses. However, transit connectivity between the neighborhood and the South Norwalk train station should be considered and evaluated with the overall goal of providing a direct transit connection between with the South Norwalk train station and as well as increasing transit access to major employment hubs, including the Merritt 7 office park and Norwalk Hospital.
Read About Micro-Transit in Norwalk
One important factor to the success of the Wall Street/West Ave. Plan is coordinated planning and implementation between agencies, departments, institutions, developers, businesses and other community stakeholder groups. The city and the Norwalk Redevelopment Agency will track progress of the plan’s recommendations and work with various city departments to achieve the goals and vision of the plan.
Read the Full Wall Street-West Avenue Plan
Final Wall Street-West Avenue Neighborhood Plan
Wall Street/West Avenue Draft Plan
The State of Retail Companies in Norwalk
As part of the market study for the West Avenue-Wall Street Area Development Plan, an analysis of retail establishments was conducted, based on consumer expenditure data, to see if the area is over- or under-served by different types of retail stores. Are there enough stores to fulfill residents’ needs or are they going elsewhere to shop? Conversely, is there a surplus of stores, attracting a lot of people from outside the area. The study looked at a both the direct Wall Street - West Avenue district as well as farther out encompassing most of Norwalk.
Within the Wall Street - West Avenue District
The area within a one mile radius of the Wall Street-West Avenue Redevelopment Area has a population of 24,831, or 9,858 households. The median disposable household income was $46,456 in 2018, and per capita income was $32,239.
This area is home to many convenience retail stores. These are retail establishments carrying goods and services for which customers are not willing to travel very far such as convenience stores, pharmacies, small groceries, and coffee shops. These stores tend to be smaller and rely on local traffic. Within this area, there are ten retail segments that have a surplus, where supply exceeds the area’s demand. These include food and drinking service places, gas stations, health & personal care stores, motor vehicle & parts dealers, book, periodical and music stores. This surplus means there is more spending in the area than would be anticipated given the population. However, additional housing development in the immediate area would increase demand for convenience-oriented retail, which may allow for additional establishments to be supported.
Four retail categories are currently experiencing demand higher than supply in the area (this gap has an estimated value of $18 million per year). The largest of these are general merchandise stores and, most relevant to this area, food and beverage stores. There is an opportunity for more retail businesses such as a food and beverage store to capture demand in this area.
3-Miles Around Wall Street-West Avenue
This geographic area includes a population of 93,508 comprising 35,605 households, with a median disposable household income of $60,897 and a per capita income of $45,477. Typical retail in this area includes larger groceries and drug stores, discount stores, and general merchandise, apparel, electronics, home goods, and sporting goods stores. The types of retail stores that have more demand than the number of current stores can handle include clothing and accessories (primarily shoe stores), gasoline stations, motor vehicle and parts dealers, restaurants and eating places, and building materials, garden equipment and supply stores.
There are several types of retail establishments in this geographic range where overall retail sales exceed the expected demand for the area, so shoppers are being drawn from outside the region. These include electronics and appliance stores, furniture and home furnishings, and food and beverage stores.
Current State of Retail and Future Outlook
As Norwalk and the Wall Street-West Avenue district consider what kind of retail is needed in the area, it’s good to take a look at the state of retail in the region and in Norwalk. In the last 12 months, Fairfield County was among the five metro areas with the largest declines in rental rates year-over-year, as well as the largest decrease in retail employment. Nationwide, while most retail sectors continue to shrink, restaurants and e-commerce businesses increased their employment in many metro areas, and were the fastest growing retail sectors. Companies that filled in vacated retail space include gyms, grocery stores, trampoline parks, and furniture stores, as well as non-retail businesses such as self-storage.
Norwalk currently has one of the few new malls under construction nationwide. The SoNo Collection, scheduled to open in 2019, will feature over 675,000 square feet of retail space, including Nordstrom’s and Bloomingdale’s; 58,000 square feet of restaurant space, and over 3,000 parking spaces. This mall is expected to have a large, regional draw. The new mall will offer the types of retail stores in Norwalk where there is a larger demand than the city is now offering, for example general merchandise, clothing and accessories, and food and beverage stores, as well as draw shoppers from outside the immediate area.
Read the Full Draft of the Wall Street/West Avenue Neighborhood Plan
(The study begins on page 84)
Responses To Redevelopment Plan Public Questions And Comment